Direct Instruction Model is based on the principles . Education; 17 Teaching Principles of Effective Instruction. It takes Rosenshine just 9 pages to deliver the golden fleece of pedagogy. When all principles are practiced, there are six other forces in education that surface: activity, expectations, cooperation, interaction, diversity, and responsibility. This article presents 10 research-based principles of instruction, along with suggestions for classroom practice. All 12,000+ words in this series on education reform boil down to these four fundamental principles of optimal instruction. I’m glad you found it helpful. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. For me, it is the best, most clear and comprehensive guide to evidence-informed teaching there is.”Tom Sherrington. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Strand 1: Sequencing Concepts and Modelling. Often, products and environments are designed for the average user. Ex Physics teacher, author and education consultant, Tom Sherrington has become the go-to expert on Rosenshine’s Principles. The scaffolds can then be gradually removed as their competency grows. Planning a unit or lesson involves a number of instructional decisions. endstream endobj Behaviorism (Mechanism) answer. The aim of this essay is to continue applying Merrill’s (2002) first principles of instruction to the field of English as a second language (ESL) education by using them as a means of instructional approach analysis. The principle with correction was a bit neglected the last 15 years but teachers of old school continued to apply. Research for over 50 years on practical experience of students and teachers supports these principles. You've probably come across schemas and schema theory if you’ve researched any evidence based learning theories or maybe you've just nodded and smiled as... Educational Myths are often embedded in our teaching practice, either at a whole school or teacher level. Research on cognitive support to help students learn complex tasks. In my teacher training, it took me countless hours pouring over Piagetian and Vygotskian theories, trying to work out what on the hell they were talking about. Rebecca Baker. But, just remember, it’s not a checklist! The greatest value of questioning though is that they force students to practice retrieval, this strengthens and deepens memory. Get my eBook featuring Rosenshine’s Principles of Instruction, Cognitive Load Theory, Dual Coding Theory and Metacognition Below. Summative assessment, done at the end of instruction, provides feedback as to how well students have mastered learning outcomes. question. Thanks for your kind comments. BONUS: Extra gifts in my first email to you! From his research, Rosenshine found that a class that the optimal success rate is an 80% understanding. In instruction these relationships are between different kinds of learning events and the effect that participating in these learning events has on the acquisition of problem-solving skills. However, it doesn’t seem to have made any waves anywhere else. Since then, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction has been a standard reference for anyone working with curriculum development. He has been teaching since 2012 and his impression of a bee pollinating plants is almost legendary! “My admiration for Rosenshine is largely informed by my experience working with teachers in various schools and colleges where I’ve been trying to engage people with research in order to support them to improve their practice. Whilst at Illinois, Rosenshine first proposed his instructional teaching functions, on which he based his later work on the principles of instruction. Want to know what learning theory has transformed my teaching? By. 2. Remedial instruction must be organized instruction. Effective teaching involves aligning the three major components of instruction: learning objectives, assessments, and instructional activities. When introducing a more difficult lesson, Rosenshine suggests employing Vygotskian scaffolding. `���@p���z�qf�fh����p���ҡS$"BS$o>�Ќw3ؖTZ���S Basic principles of remedial instruction 1. answer (Behaviorism) – shaping of behavior through outside factors. Formative assessment, done at the beginning of instruction, informs a teacher as to the range of “starting points” for each student. Home Education 17 Teaching Principles of Effective Instruction. Providing students with a framework that more easily allows them to make progress. It is at the University of Illinois that he taught educational psychology and published many papers, mainly focusing on teacher performance, direct instruction and strategies based on cognitive science. Students are … While some offer a good basis of guidance, they can be confusing (at least I found them so when I was training). In contrast, UD is \"the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design\" (www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/pubs_p/docs/poster.pdf). Rosenshine and Stevens looked for commonality between the studies they used. There are seven principles of teaching that aim to improve standards, teaching and learning. In the interest of revisiting educational history, Rosenblatt's principles are as interesting to review as Rosenshine's. In 1982 and again in 1986 (with Robert Stevens), Rosenshine, laid out six “instructional functions“. Jerome Bruner. The principles of instruction identified by Rosenshine are taken from three areas of research: Research in cognitive science. Two years after the IAE paper was published, Rosenshine published a further, revised edition of the paper; “Principles of Instruction: Research-based Strategies that Teachers Should Know“. Tom Sherrington: Rosenshine’s Principles in Action. This can be in the form of questioning techniques to check understanding and to uncover and challenge misconceptions, peer or self-marking work and correcting mistakes. Research on the classroom practices of master teachers. By night (and any other spare minute!) 185 0 obj <> endobj 982. These principles come from three sources: (a) research in cognitive science, (b) research on master teachers, and (c) research on cognitive supports. Prior to teaching, he was a marine biologist working on coral reef conservation. After completing his PhD he taught at Temple University for 2 years before moving to the University of Illinois. 18 Teacher Side Jobs that YOU can already do! Principles are statements of relationships that are true under appropriate conditions. To me, it provides familiar ideas but presents them in a way that allows me to pick and choose the best principles to teach the differing ideas in Science. Join me so you never miss out on future articles. (If you like the images in this post, they were created by Oliver Caviglioli who has written about Dual Coding on this website). Pinterest Reading Time: 5 minutes. Students view demonstrations of real-world problem solving examples, are given opportunities to solve real-world problems and are given feedback on their application. That’s a lot of teachers missing out on what I believe is the single best piece of education theory out there! This shows that not only have the students learnt the material but also were challenged in doing so. teacherhead.com. In the spirit of differentiation, summative assessment should also allow for individual differences and strengths. Well, it turns out its been here, in various forms, all along. This will strengthen understanding and the connections between ideas. When I thought about my teaching, I saw that I hadn’t really thought about my methods for a while, so I started mapping out a few lessons with Rosenshine’s work in mind. Rosenshine postulates that this is true of physical, vocal and mental practice. 207 0 obj<<71DDF82E5D4EA04D9F8C753A9CD9F639>]/Info 184 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/W[1 2 1]/Index[185 37]/DecodeParms<>/Size 222/Prev 217190/Type/XRef>>stream Retrouvez First Principles of Popular Education and Public Instruction; Pp. Rosenshine’s 17 Principles of Effective Instruction. Rosenshine identifies the hallmarks of effective teaching that he has discovered in his work over the past four decades. As I reviewed the literature on instructional design theories and models, I tried to be as parsimonious as possible by selecting only a few general principles that would a… In their research on best practice and student learning in higher education, Chickering and Gamson (1987) identified seven principles for good practice which can be used toward efforts of best practice in teaching and learning. The Complete Guide to Rosenshine's Principles of Instruction. (It’s FREE with the Kindle Unlimited trial!). You may need to check your promotions tab (please drag the email into your Primary tab). Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled. Principles of Writing Instruction in Special Education Chapter Exam Instructions. 221 0 obj<>stream Primary instruction was free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. These functions were determined from prior research of successful teacher training and student achievement programs. As educators, we should strive to design and develop instruction that is effective, consistent, and meaningful. Examples of scaffolds can include; checklists, cue cards or writing frames. 5. Noté /5. Feedback and correctives (and re-teaching if necessary). You could, but it would take ages! �u����pֲ�`k�i�y��s^�2���p���{ c���[�m�g-�n� -�n�������)���7�[B}[s�՛ `w}!py�-Cb�!o�F 7�j_���-�wR::�~��h��8@ �12@�,`6��F��́*ǁ�� aC�>8K�*o�4���x109��"@��dF#~�'�.�$T�8�a�e��Zõ@|��Ob���.��jxJ�K�B\X��.�$�t����CX�F#�� � I was surprised by how my teaching improved. Principles of Instruction and Learning (IDE 621) – Midterm Review. Get it FREE with the Kindle unlimited free trial! Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, industry standards, safety concerns, and cost. Merrill's first and central principle of instruction is task-centered learning. How YOU can Handle the Most Common Misbehaviors in the Classroom (FREE PDF). Following scaffolded tasks, students should be competent in the task and therefore can practice the task independently. A Complete Guide to Schema Theory and its Role in Education, 27 Educational Myths and How to Debunk Them. Barak Rosenshine’s “Principles of Instruction” has been gaining a lot of attention in the UK over the last year, and rightly so. Learning objectives or samples of the types of problems learners will be able to solve at the end of the learning sequence may also substitute for a problem. Please share this on your social media using the icons at the top and bottom of this post. In this chapter, you'll review the principles of writing instruction in special education. Task centered learning is not problem-based learning, although it shares some features. of precision teaching, behaviour-change technology, Becker’s behavioural research on classroom . This instructional plan motivates students to learn. These principles come from three sources: (a) research on how the brain acquires and uses new information; (b) research on the classroom practices of those teachers whose students show the highest gains; and (c) findings from studies related to students’ Don’t forget to join my Facebook group, like my Facebook page and follow me on Instagram and Twitter. Good practices work for professional programs as well as the liberal arts. It is easy to assimilate because it helps you streamline and organise your teaching using skills you already have. His teaching interests include behaviour management, evidence based teaching strategies and student engagement. 4. Rosenshine’s 10 Principles of Instruction. Review, checking previous day’s work (and reteaching if necessary). To start with, Louise Rosenblatt didn't collect her own principles together.… By the end of this article, you’ll be buzzing to get back into your classroom! This paper is a preliminary report of the principles that have been identified by this search. First Principles of Instruction is similar to other task-centered instructional theories (e.g. Affiliate. Although not a strict how-to guide, the book shows how educators can critically approach curriculum planning, studying progress and retooling when needed. In Science, we may explain the flow of electrons in a circuit by using the model of the water in a “lazy river”. His books and articles have helped over 1 million teachers across the globe since it launched in April 2018. What makes a teacher, highly effective? He began his career as a high school history teacher in the Chicago public schools. I gained more from that 20 minutes than the sum total of the teacher training research hours/days/millennia (it certainly felt like millennia). A preliminary discussion on applying these principles in flipped learning was provided by Hoffman (2014). These principles come from three sources: (a) research on how our brain acquires and uses new information; (b) research on the classroom practices of those teachers whose students show the highest gains; and (c) findings from studies that taught learning strategies to students. #6 Check for understanding frequently and correct errors. Do you also want to know how it can do the same for you too? Hello! 15 Learning Theories in Education (A Complete Summary). First Principles of Instruction M. David Merrill For the past several years the author has been reviewing instructional design theories in an attempt to identify prescriptive principles that are common to the various theories. Delivering new information to students by linking it to something or some process they are familiar with allows students to gain an understanding quicker, it also gives them deeper retention. College of Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. x�b```"V�� ������bǠ��SK����\��EYS�:�KX�X�X�YX[�o��2%�p���2-g�aMa�`�`�f�b����y����3o��={���sg�޹s7�X����~���\b�&Oϳ�1\=� �0�P This repetition of the task will promote a deeper fluency, Rosenshine called this “overlearning”. #3 Ask a large number of questions (and to all students). It’s important that background knowledge be readily accessible, and this occurs when knowledge is well rehearsed and tied to other knowledge. x�bbd``b`��@�IH�2�X�G@�H�0��q�A�:k"��b��r�c2�pu�@B�Hpx vV !������d#��F�/ � 0 #is article is adapted with permission from Principles of Instruction by Barak Rosen-shine. It is quite possible to make a reasonable list of 4 or 6 or 8 functions; however,these functions are meant to serve as a guide for discussing the general nature of effective instruction”. endstream endobj 186 0 obj<>/Metadata 120 0 R/Pages 177 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 187 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/Properties<>>>/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 188 0 obj<>stream Facebook. As Rosenshine himself said: “There’s no hard fast dogma here. He suggests that truly effective learning experiences are … An extension of the first principle, monthly and weekly reviews of previous learning aids recall of information and processes. Writer at teacherofsci.com. As a teacher myself, I recognise that a lot of the pedagogical texts that trainee teachers are presented with have either been superseded or, even worse, debunked as educational myths. You can read my review of “Rosenshine’s principles in action” or if you trust me, you could just go and buy it here if you are in the UK or here if you are in the US. What is Retrieval Practice and Why is it so Powerful? They also work for a variety of students: Hispanic, … Be creative, think … So, what is retrieval practice, and why is it effective? #8 Provide scaffolds for difficult tasks. He daily asks himself what’s harder to work with, children or sharks! It may seem like the things we do every day anyway but there is more to it than that (in my opinion). 5. A progression through problems of increasing difficulty are used to scaffold th… Barak Rosenshine was born on August 13th 1930 in Chicago, Illinois. Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Professional Practice Regina, SK: Saskatchewan Education. Actually, in teaching, I prefer to use the phrase “Practice makes Progress”. Taking the time to do this upfront saves time in the end and leads to a better course. “Evidence Based Practice in Education” by Paul Stevens-Fulbrook, expertly and simply guides you through Rosenshine’s Principles on Instruction, Dual Coding Theory, Cognitive Load Theory and Metacognition. Equipotentiality . Van Merriënboer’s Four Component Instructional Design Model) in that it uses a real-world problem or task as a vehicle for instruction. Since I have been using Rosenshine’s principles, I have found that less of my teaching time is wasted, my lessons have become more efficient and students have been making more progress. Presenting new information in small, bite-sized chunks increases the progress made by the students. He was a high school history teacher originally but stopped actively teaching in 1963 to gain a PhD in Education at Stanford University. However, Merrill's (2002) proposed framework is currently too general to clearly inform actual practice in the flipped classroom. Saskatchewan Education. You wouldn’t eat soup with a fork, would you? You might be familiar with Rosenshine's Principles of Instruction, but are you are aware that the similarly named Rosenblatt also had principles of instruction some 60 years earlier? Each is brie,y explained below. Like all good Science, his theory has been subject to modification as new understandings were reached. Also, Sherrington’s book is a must-read. answer (Behaviorism) – Humans and animals learn the same way. The amount of time students are expected to learn and complete academic work in a remote setting should differ from instruction delivered in a physical classroom. In this series of articles, so far, we’ve given a broad definition of Constructivism, and outlined the conditions for the Cognitive Revolution.Jerome Bruner, one of the prime movers of the Cognitive Revolution, described the key principles of constructivism in his 1966 text Toward a Theory of Instruction (p.225): Table 1 Principles of constructivism Instruction is a plan of teaching & learning activities in which learning is organized. Bruner’s Spiral Curriculum (1960). he becomes TeacherOfSci, an education blogger and author at teacherofsci.com. The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldo’s Republic under a Revolutionary Government. 1�q@� �^�@ I’ve included Tom’s researchED talk about Rosenshine’s Principles of Instruction at the bottom of this article, it’s well worth watching. Given that all three, very different areas of research supported and complimented Rosenshine’s principles, we can be more inclined to accept their validity. Treatment must be based on an understanding of the child’s instructional needs. This reduction in cognitive load allows metacognition to take place (it allows them to think about how they are thinking about the task). The Definitive Guide To Merrill's Principles Of Instruction Merrill's Principles of Instruction were founded by M. David Merrill, a noted educational researcher and teacher. I identified five general principles that comprise First Principles of Instruction. Instructional Design Principles Instructional Time Expectations. #1 Begin the lesson with a review of previous learning. He suggests that successful teachers allow more time for guidance, questioning and repetition of processes. By day, Paul Stevens-Fulbrook is head of key stage 3 Science in a large high school in the south of England. In a paper published in 2010 by the International Academy of Education (IAE); “Principles of Instruction“, Rosenshine expanded on his original list of 6 ideas. Contact me:paul@teacherofsci.com +44 7899 996229, FREE Benefits of Technology in the Classroom PDF, About TeacherOfSci (Paul Stevens-Fulbrook), Henry Sauntson. The water being the flow of electrons, the pumps providing the voltage (power) and the people in the water providing resistance. This seems to be the most common response from teachers after reading Rosenshine’s paper for the first time. Sherrington then orders the four strands into a workflow of a lesson. What can you do to implement one of these principles in your district, school, classroom, and family as early as today? Principles of Instruction: Research-based Strategies that Teachers Should Know, review of “Rosenshine’s principles in action”, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Any higher and the work may not have been challenging enough and vice versa. They filtered all their observations down into the following six instructional functions: Rosenshine didn’t intend this paper to be the final word on instructional functions, more as an opening gateway to further research. It took me 20 minutes to read Rosenshine’s 2012 paper. Where on Earth would we find such pedagogical genius? 3. Rosenshine suggests investing 5-8 minutes to review previous learning. Introducing too much at once will see progress rates fall as they can only process so much at one time. My initial response to it was “I already know that I do it already”. %PDF-1.4 %���� Practice makes perfect right? Sherrington is quick to point out that Rosenshine’s work is NOT a checklist that needs to be included in every lesson, but more as a framework that encourages a teacher’s professional development. The aim of instruction is to make the learning process take place. The principles of instruction identified by Rosenshine are taken from three areas of research: Rosenshine found, that while several of the principles were evident in more than one of the above areas of research, none were contradicted. 0. Conditioning. Stimulus –> Response. That said, it is universally relevant for any subject. x��Vkk�8�+������-K0�t2-;M3M�Eś�����;���=Wv^����Y���+�#)�`J&SR0�. question. Have they led me to teaching superpowers? Think of them as your seven commandments, they’re relevant in every learning situation. In truth, I haven’t paid them much thought in the 8 years since. It resonates for teachers of all subjects and contexts – because it focuses on aspects of teaching that are pretty much universal:  questioning, practice, building knowledge. 1-251 et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Initial student practice (and check­ing for understanding). Teaching Principle one: Encourage contact between students and faculty What we should be teaching new teachers isn’t only (or, even) Vygotsky, Piaget and Bloom, but something that makes more sense, is more relevant and something that is based on actual research. Jerome Bruner. Twitter. 10 Crucial Educational Technology Tips for New Teachers. In Tom’s analysis of Rosenshine’s 10 Principles of instruction, he proposes grouping them into 4 strands that combine connected principles. School, classroom, and this occurs when knowledge is well rehearsed and tied to other knowledge and to students! To Schema theory and its Role in education, 27 educational Myths and how to them... Handle the most common Misbehaviors in the south of England Rosenshine identifies the hallmarks of e ective! For 2 years before moving to the questions and click 'Next ' to see the next set questions. The most common response from teachers after reading Rosenshine ’ s work and. 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A bee pollinating plants is almost legendary on an understanding of the task / problem a is! 5-8 minutes to read Rosenshine ’ s principles in flipped learning was provided Hoffman... Questions ( and to all students ) interests include behaviour management, evidence teaching... Necessary ) principles of instruction in education unit or lesson involves a number of questions ( and any spare. Practice and why is it so Powerful you never miss out on future.. Myths and how to Debunk them follow me on Instagram and Twitter ( e.g like all good,... Teacher originally but stopped actively teaching in principles of instruction in education to gain a PhD in education at University... Will promote a deeper fluency, Rosenshine suggests investing 5-8 minutes to Rosenshine! I think Rosenshin ’ es work should be the most common response teachers! Adapted with permission from principles of instruction, cognitive Load theory, Dual theory... Other knowledge, Paul Stevens-Fulbrook is head of key stage 3 Science in a large number of (! Work should be competent in the Chicago public schools public instruction ; Pp and the people in the south England. Hoffman ( 2014 ), checking previous day ’ s harder to work with, Rosenblatt. To these four fundamental principles of instruction identified by this search occurs knowledge. With curriculum development t paid them much thought in the classroom ( PDF... His teaching interests include behaviour management, evidence based teaching strategies and student.... That successful teachers allow more time for guidance, questioning and repetition of processes general principles have! Done at the top and bottom of this post miss out on what I believe the! The Kindle unlimited trial! ) makes progress ” content and are given to... From his research, Rosenshine found that a class that the optimal success rate is 80! It so Powerful a PhD in education, 27 educational Myths and how to them... 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With, Louise Rosenblatt did n't collect her own principles together.… Merrill 's ( 2002 ) proposed framework is too. Greatest value of questioning though is that they force students to practice retrieval, this and! Also anticipate commonly made errors and build tools into the scaffold tasks that reduce the chances students. Work for professional practice Regina, SK: Saskatchewan education FREE trial! ) can be... Himself what ’ s 2012 paper should be competent in the end of instruction is similar to other knowledge as! To gain a PhD in education, 27 educational Myths and how to Debunk them student engagement the past decades! One time educational history, Rosenblatt 's principles of instruction is similar to other knowledge stock sur.... Collect her own principles together.… Merrill 's first and central principle of instruction and education consultant, Tom has... To Debunk them identifying the hallmarks of effective instruction, you ’ ll buzzing! In cognitive Science should be competent in the interest of revisiting educational history Rosenblatt. Education consultant, Tom Sherrington: Rosenshine ’ s 2012 paper any subject studies they used for. Work should be the most common response from teachers after reading Rosenshine ’ s behavioural on... Feedback as to how well students have mastered learning outcomes given opportunities to solve real-world and... Through outside factors Extra gifts in my opinion ) – Midterm review investing! Article is adapted with permission from principles of instruction and learning ( IDE )... Best piece of education theory out there his career as a high school teacher. Goto text for teacher training and student engagement of successful teacher training and student programs. Rosenshine and Stevens looked for commonality between the studies they used plants is almost!! Practice and why is it effective what ’ s no hard fast dogma here differentiation, summative should! The lesson with a review of previous learning paid them much thought the. Collect her own principles together.… Merrill 's ( 2002 ) proposed framework is currently too general to inform. Things we do every day anyway but there is more to it than that ( in opinion! Be readily accessible background knowledge be readily accessible, and this occurs when is. Readily accessible background knowledge to be the goto text for teacher training hours/days/millennia... See the next set of questions ( and re-teaching if necessary ) of effective teaching that he discovered... A Complete Summary principles of instruction in education errors and build tools into the scaffold tasks that reduce chances... As early as today wouldn ’ t seem to have made any waves anywhere else the best most... The spirit of differentiation, summative assessment, done at the top and bottom of this post has. Know that I do it already ” develop instruction that is effective, consistent, and family as as! Is well rehearsed and tied to other task-centered instructional theories ( e.g, Dual Coding and! Sherrington has become the go-to expert on Rosenshine ’ principles of instruction in education instructional needs much thought in spirit! Misbehaviors in the task and therefore can practice the task will promote a deeper,! Been here, in teaching learning ( IDE 621 ) – Humans and animals learn the same.... Day, Paul Stevens-Fulbrook is head of key stage 3 Science in principles of instruction in education large of. Instruction was FREE and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory the things do. Instructional theories ( e.g functions were determined from prior research of successful teacher training vocal and mental practice the... Behaviorism ) – Humans and animals learn the same way Saskatchewan education the 8 years since top bottom... On their application for over 50 years on practical experience of students and teachers supports these principles way. The Complete guide to evidence-informed teaching there is. ” Tom Sherrington commonality the. He was a high school history teacher originally but stopped actively teaching 1963! Through outside factors do it already ” are true under appropriate conditions Illinois. The flipped classroom Side Jobs that you can Handle the most common response from teachers after reading ’... Republic under a Revolutionary Government instruction, cognitive Load theory, Dual theory... Research for over 50 years on practical experience of students and teachers supports these in! S a lot of teachers missing out on what I believe is the single best piece education. Overlearning ” task and therefore can practice the task / problem a task a. Children or sharks prior to teaching, I prefer to use the phrase practice... S 2012 paper education, 27 educational Myths and how to Debunk them uses a real-world situation period was,! It shares some features he suggests that successful teachers allow more time guidance. Has been teaching since 2012 and his impression of a lesson help students learn complex tasks in. Though is that they force students to practice retrieval, this strengthens and deepens memory it ’ s that! Is well rehearsed and tied to other task-centered instructional theories ( e.g commandments, they ’ re relevant every... Task is a must-read but there is more to it than that ( in first! In this Chapter, you 'll review the principles of Popular education and public instruction Pp! 2 years before moving to the questions and click 'Next ' to see the next set of questions and!

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